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Religious persecution in the Middle Ages

The treatment of religious minorities, and particularly the Jews, described here was not unique to the Iberian Peninsula in the Middle Ages. During the 13th century Jews in France and the German Holy Roman Empire were required to wear the Judenhut, a cone-shaped pointed hat. During this time there were numerous examples of whole communities of Jews in both lands being expelled and their property confiscated to enrich the royal treasury. In 1290 Edward I of England, turned on the Jewish money lenders he was so dependent on to finance his wars, introduced all kinds of restrictions on their occupations and movement and required them to wear a yellow patch. When they could no longer pay the taxes he was imposing on them, they too were expelled from the kingdom and all their wealth and property was confiscated.

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Here we see on the right of the picture the Jewish poet, Süsskind of Trimberg, presenting himself to a Lord or official of the city of Konstanz. He wears the cone-shaped Judenhut.