What were the consequences?

Circassians in the Ottoman Army

Finding no choice except to settle in the lands of the Caliph, the immigrants quickly adapted to their new environment. They not only revitalized the agriculture of Anatolia and countered the separatist tendencies of some of the other ethnic minorities within the Empire, they also joined the Ottoman establishment itself, particularly within the army. They became a key element within the armed forces of the Ottoman Empire and provided a backbone of unquestioned loyalty and service.


In 1918 Anatolia was occupied by Allied forces after the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the first World War. A Turkish national resistance movement emerged, led by the youngest general in the Ottoman army, Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) dedicated to the creation of a modern, national republic of Turkey. Mustafa Kemal had been the youngest General in the Turkish army. Many of the leading figures supporting Kemal Ataturk in the Turkish War of Independence (1919-1922) were of Circassian descent.