The Circassians have been in a state of Diaspora ever since their migration to the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century. During the last decades of the tsarist regime, their Circassian lands were resettled by Russians, Ukrainians and Armenians. Today, only a minority of Circassians still live there, mainly in three republics of the Russian Federation (Kabardino- Balkaria, Karacahay-Cherkessia and Adygea).
Today, many people of Circassian origin live in Turkey, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Germany and the United States. According to estimates, some 120,000 Circassians live in Jordan, 45,000 in Syria, and 4,000 in Israel, but the bulk of the diaspora - 3.5 million - live in Turkey.
This figure is four times more than the population living in the Circassians' traditional homeland in the North Caucasus.