What were the consequences?

Assimilation and loss of culture and language

Caucasians did their best to preserve their Caucasian customs and traditions. Full preservation of cultural identity and language of origin, have been possible only in isolated rural areas. Inescapable internal assimilation has taken place.

For example, the last speaker of the the Ubykh language died in 1992. Before the Russian-Caucasian Wars the Ubykh had inhabited an area just northwest of Abkhazia in the Caucasus.   By 1864,as well as other Muslim people of Caucasus, the Ubykh left their homeland . By May 21, the entire Ubykh nation had departed from the Caucasus. They eventually settled in a number of villages in western Turkey around the municipality of Manyas (Balikesir).  In order to avoid discrimination, the Ubykh elders encouraged their people to assimilate into Turkish culture.  The Ubykh language was rapidly displaced by Turkish. The last native speaker of Ubykh, Tevfik Esenç, died in 1992.


Tevfik Esenc

Tevfik Esenç (1904 - October 7, 1992) was a Circassian exile in Turkey and the last known speaker of the Ubykh language. As a civil servant based in Istanbul, he was able to do a great deal of work with the French linguist Georges Dumézil to help record his language. He was also the primary source of the mythology, culture and customs of the Ubykh people.