What were the experiences of those involved?

The CUMER-CLN report

Lupo and his brigade never had good relations with  CUMER and CLN because Lupo wanted to be autonomous and didn't like the political commissioner or orders from outside. It is possible that this report might be biased against Stella Rossa. However a lot of other testimonies confirm that the brigade disbanded after Lupo had been killed. No one was able to organize any type of effective resistance apart from the isolated incidents of hard but useless fights. Nevertheless it is difficult to explain why 800 partisans, even badly armed, were not able at least to reduce the harm to the population and only 10 to 20 partisans died in the fighting.


(..) In my opinion, together with the absolute deficiency of the information service, I add a fact that was crucial for the destiny of the brigade. At the time of the attack, Lupo and his deputy commander Gianni were not in the brigade headquarters but in a farmers' house on the edge of our action area. In this house there were their lovers, in whose house they spent many nights, including the night of the attack. They didn't have the capability to command any actions from there. On the contrary that house was one of the first to be surrounded and attacked. Also absent from command of his battalion was Lieutenant Celso, first battalion. This was usual for him: night and day.

Report of the Cumer on the defeat of Stella Rossa and responsibilities


Source: November 1944, Bologna (Italy), by CUMER ( Top military command of the partisans in Emilia Romagna) – CLN, Report on the attack on Stella Rossa, 29th September 1944 originally in Cumer Bulletin, November 1944; now in Luciano Casali (ed.) Cumer. “The military bulletin” of the unique military command of Emilia Romagna, Bologna, Patron, 1997