In 1974 a Marxist coup d’état in Ethiopia led to a 17-year civil war between the new Government’s forces and the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Front (EPRP) and several other liberation fronts. The EPRP began a systematic campaign against government supporters (“the White Terror”) and the government retaliated with its own campaign (“the Red Terror”). Over a million died, mostly civilian non-combatants.
From 1975-1979 the communist Khmer Rouge led by Pol Pot ruled Cambodia. During this period there were mass executions of opponents and purges within the Khmer Rouge itself and many others died from starvation. Estimates vary but suggest that at least 2 million civilians were killed. Currently leaders of the regime are facing trials in Cambodia for genocide and crimes against humanity.
In 1977, two years after the end of the war of independence, a civil war broke out in Mozambique (1977-1992) between the ruling party, the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) and the Mozambique Resistance Movement (RENAMO) which was supported by the Apartheid regime in South Africa. Over a million people died in the fighting or from starvation and land mines and another 5 million were displaced from their homes. Both sides committed atrocities: massacres, mass rapes, mutilations, use of child soldiers and forced labour.
The 2nd Sudanese Civil War (1983-2002) was mainly a continuation of the first civil war (1955-72). Over two million civilians died as a result of fighting, disease or famine and another 4 million were displaced. Crimes against humanity were committed by both sides and over 200,000 women and children in the south were taken into slavery by pro-government militias.