The story of renditions, with its secret flights by jet aircraft and ultra-modern forms of electronic surveillance, belongs firmly to the 21st century United States and its ‘War on Terror’. But the issues surrounding renditions - terrorism and fear of terrorism, arbitrary use of state power, secret arrests, detention without trial, the use of torture, the manipulation of the truth and the demonisation of the other – can be found in many other parts of the world and in many other historical times. In the late 16th century England, the state used spies and torture to root out Catholic plots against Elizabeth I. In 19th century Russia, the Tsarist regime reacted the perceived threat of terrorism by deporting suspects to prison camps far away in Siberia. 20th century dictatorships in Germany, Italy, Spain and the USSR all trampled over human rights and “rendered” many thousands to concentration camps. During the Cold War, state power frequently harassed and intimidated innocent people because of exaggerated or imaginary fears of dissent and disloyalty.